Collaboration in health care teams"is an interprofessional process of communication and decision making that enables the separate and shared knowledge and skills of health care providers to synergistically influence the client/patient care provided”1
Collaborative patient-centred practice"is designed to promote the active participation of each discipline in patient care. It enhances patient and family-centred goals and values, provides mechanisms for continuous communcation among caregivers, and optimizes staff participation in clinical decision making within and across disciplines fostering respect for disciplinary contributions of all professionals."2
Pre-licensure/post-licensure educationPre-licensure education occurs while students are in their formal years of learning, before being licenced to practice independently. Post-licensure education denotes education that occurs once a health professional is practicing independently. It often takes the form of continuing professional development. It also would include graduate education (e.g., Masters of Nursing or Masters of Social Work.)3
An educational continuumThink of the following types of education as a continuum. Movement along the continuum is characterized by increasingly complex knowledge and appreciation of professions other than one's own.4
Uniprofessional education (UPE)Students from the same discipline or profession learn together.
Multiprofessional education (MPE)Various disciplines are brought together to understand a particular problem or experience. They learn alongside one another but do not interact with one another.
Interprofessional Education (IPE)The Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education defines IPE as "occasions when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care."
Their collaborative interaction is characterized by the integration and modification of different professions' contributions in light of input from other professions.
The hallmark of IPE is the type of cognitive and behavioural change that occurs: participants understand the core principles and concepts of each contributing discipline and are familiar with the basic language and mindsets of the various disciplines.
Teamwork and its relationship with collaboration5"Teamwork is the interaction or relationship of two or more health professionals who work interdependently to provide care for patients. Teamwork means members of the team:
3 Oandasan, Ivy & Scott Reeves (2005). The learner, the educator and the learning context. Journal of Interprofessional Care (Volume 19) Supplement 1: 39 – 48
4 Adapted from Clark, P.G. (1993), Journal of Interprofessional Care, 7(3), p. 219-220.
5 Poulton, B. Teamwork and team development in health care social care. In Watkins D, Edwards J, Gastrell P (2003) Community Health Nursing Frameworks for Practice, 2nd edition. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall.